Epilepsy Brain Disorder

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Epilepsy Brain Disorder 

Epilepsy Brain Disorder  

What is Epilepsy Disorder?

This is a disorder in which clusters of nerve cells, or neurons, in the brain sometimes signal abnormally. 

The normal pattern of neuronal activity becomes disturbed, causing strange sensations, emotions, and behavior or sometimes convulsions, muscle spasms, and loss of consciousness. Epilepsy is a disorder with many possible causes. 

Anything that disturbs the normal pattern of neuron activity - from illness to brain damage to abnormal brain development - can lead to seizures. 

This disease may develop because of an abnormality in brain wiring, an imbalance of nerve signaling chemicals called neurotransmitters, or some combination of these factors. Having a seizure does not necessarily mean that a person has epilepsy. 

Only when a person has had two or more seizures is he or she considered to have the disease. EEGs and brain scans are common diagnostic test for epilepsy. Is there any treatment? Once epilepsy is diagnosed, it is important to begin treatment as soon as possible. 

For about 80 percent of those diagnosed, seizures can be controlled with modern medicines and surgical techniques. 

Some antiepiletic drugs can interfere with the effectiveness of oral contraceptives. In 1997, the FDA approved the vagus nerve stimulator for use in people with seizures that are not well-controlled by medication. 

What is the prognosis for this disorder? 

Most people with the disorder lead outwardly normal lives. While it cannot currently be cured, for some people it does eventually go away. 

Most seizures do not cause brain damage. It is not uncommon for people with epilepsy, especially children, to develop behavioral and emotional problems, sometimes the consequence of embarrassment and frustration or bullying, teasing, or avoidance in school and other social setting. 

For many people with epilepsy, the risk of seizures restricts their independence (some states refuse drivers licenses to people with epilepsy) and recreational activities. People with the problem are at special risk for two life-threatening conditions: status epilepticus and sudden unexplained death. 

Most women with epilepsy can become pregnant, but they should discuss their problem and the medications they are taking with their doctors. 

Women with epilepsy have a 90 percent or better chance of having a normal, healthy baby. 

What research is being done for this disorder? 

Scientists are studying potential antiepileptic drugs with goal of enhancing treatment for this problem.  Scientists continue to study how neurotransmitters interact with cells to control nerve firing and how non-neuronal cells in the brain contribute to seizures. 

One of the most-studied neurotransmitters is GABA, or gamma-aminobutryic acid. Researchers are working to identify genes that may influence epilepsy. This information may allow doctors to prevent an attack or to predict which treatments will be most beneficial. 

Doctors are now experimenting with several new types of therapies for the disorder, including transplanting fetal pig neurons into the brains of patients to learn whether cell transplants can help control seizures, transplanting stem cells, and using a device that could predict seizures up to 3 minutes before they begin. 

Researchers are continually improving MRI and other brain scans. Studies have show that in some case, children may experience fewer seizures if they maintain a strict diet - called the ketogenic diet - rich in fats and low in carbohydrates. 

Organizations 

Citizens United for Research in Epilepsy (CURE) 730 N. Franklin Suite 404 Chicago, IL 60610 info@CUREepilepsy.org http://www.CUREepilepsy.org Tel: 312-255-1801 Fax: 312-255-1809 

Epilepsy Foundation 4351 Garden City Drive Suite 500 Landover, MD 20785-7223 postmaster@efa.org http://www.epilepsyfoundation.org Tel: 301-459-3700 800-EFA-1000 (332-1000) Fax: 301-577-2684

Source NINDS Public Domain

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Article about this Disorder was submitted for publication by Anthony George.



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